Canting of Skis

by John Gorman
Chartered Engineer
McTimoney Chiropractor
BASI Ski Instructor




To Print a copy of this booklet use the print command in your browser, and follow the screen instructions. The default is 57 A5 pages, alter your printing parameters to change the output format.


Note; Nothing has been changed in this booklet since 1994. Nothing really needs be changed in principle but I do intend to review it soon.

 March 05


 With a gap of eight years since writing appendix III all my experience has confirmed my views and several top skiers (BASI trainers etc) have become converts and use the KPS cant gauge for their groups.

In this booklet I have quoted Warren Witherell and his 1970 book "How the Racers Ski" on various occasions. It is therefore gratifying to find that his newly published book "The Athletic Skier" bases the whole of canting on the position of the knee. This is exactly the principle that I have been promoting since 1975 or so, and I have no doubt that it is correct and will, with the publicity generated by "The Athletic Skier", become the accepted measurement system in use at every ski shop. Warren Witherell has produced a gauge (page 174 "The Athletic Skier") suitable for shops. My own KPS gauge has the advantage of being truly portable – easily fitted in a suitcase without occupying any space (because it is flat) – and particularly quick to use in groups when one has become experienced in making a quick judgement of where the centre of the knee is.

To avoid one area of possible confusion it is worth noting that basing the measurement on the Knee Perpendicular above Ski system does not mean that the knee must be exactly at 0° . I recommend somewhere between 0° and 2° on the outside edges (see appendix III), and Warren Witherell recommends between 1° and 2° . More experience will soon clarify what is right for which skier in which conditions.

The only difference that I can find between Warren Witherell’s ideas and my own is that he finds it necessary to correct a significant number of people who are over-canted (i.e. negative or skiing on the inside edges). Almost all the corrections that I have done have been positive e.g. they are skiing on the outside edges (usually significantly so). This may be because he is dealing with racers and I am dealing with recreational skiers. No racer could be significantly over +3° ) on the outside edges. He couldn’t have progressed at all and would have given up and gone to play football instead!

If many racers really are on the inside edges until they are corrected, does this mean the following? Those beginners whose leg shape puts them initially onto the inside edge without having to angulate learn to use the inside edge more quickly and therefore progress to become racers. If so why don’t we give beginners a slight negative cant so that they learn more quickly? It has long been one of my suspicions that this would be so, but it remains to be tested!


John Gorman

December 1994



What is Canting?

Figure 1 - Cant -The angle between the ski base and the leg.

The whole of this booklet is concerned with the angle of the surface of the ski in relation to the rest of the body as seen from the front. This is the angle between ski and leg in figure 1. The angle will be defined more exactly in the text but all reference to the "angle" or the "cant angle" is to the view from the front. There is no reference in this booklet to the view or angles as seen from the side. In order to avoid frequent repetition this is not restated in the text.

Since it is the angle of the ski on the snow that is the whole basis of skiing, the relation of the ski to the body or leg is of critical importance. Adjustment of this angle is referred to as canting. (It is also referred to as "wedging".)

This booklet describes a new and more objective method of measuring the cant angle than has been in use up to now.


The importance of canting has long been recognised. In the normal skiing stance the two skis should be flat on the snow, but "We Learned to Ski" published in 1974 quotes the American racing coach Warren Witherell as saying "that 80% of skiers stand on the outside or inside edges".

In 1974 or 1975 most London ski shops had machines to check whether a skier needed to cant (or wedge). The machines were designed to measure directly whether the skis would be flat on the snow in the normal skiing stance.

Figure 2 - Typical Cant Measuring Machine

Figure 2 shows such a machine. The skier would stand on two narrow plates which were free to tilt sideways. The deviation from the horizontal to which the top of each plate was set by the ski boot would be indicated by a pointer. That was then the correction required on each foot, by fitting appropriately shaped wedges under the bindings. This proved unsatisfactory for several reasons:

  1. The indication given obviously depended on the stance adopted. This made the measurement rather vague and subjective.
  2. Most people are not standing upright when they think they are (as any yoga or Alexander Technique teacher will tell you). Most right-handed people lean to their right. This results in a greater correction being recommended for one leg. Although this may correspond to the skier’s subjective impression it reinforces rather than solves the problem of one-sidedness in skiing.
  3. It was easy to alter the indication by moving the knee sideways. In other words it was easy to compensate with the knee for any variation at the foot. Almost anyone could simply alter their skiing stance to get a zero indication on both feet. From this, most good skiers and instructors argued that it was wrong to make alterations to the boot or ski to do what could be achieved by a change of stance. To cant, it was suggested, was simply a bad workman blaming his tools.


This last point is probably the main reason why canting has fallen into disrepute and is far less frequently used now than ten years ago.

However, this factor does not contradict the basic assumption that the two skis should be flat on the snow in the normal skiing stance.

This booklet provides further justification and evidence for this assumption, and also for the suggestion that most people need some adjustment to achieve this.

Ideally, this adjustment should be built into the boot such that everyone can adjust the boot for the shape of the lower leg when buying or hiring.

The emergence on the market of boots with a measure of canting adjustment creates a need to be able to identify which boots have a range of adjustment that accommodates the interested purchaser and also a need to be able to adjust such boots accurately. Use of the old canting machine will still suffer from the problem of subjective readings and ability to adjust the stance.

This booklet explains a simple and effective method of achieving the correct adjustment for each individual.

Chapter 1

The Variation

The idea that the skis should be flat on the snow in the normal skiing position suggests that the knee should be approximately above the ski. The ski boot is therefore designed to achieve this.

However, the angle of the boot is defined only by the shape of the part of the lower leg and foot that it clamps onto. This part of the shin is far from straight as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 - Lower leg is not straight

The line of action of the lower leg is from the centre of the knee joint to the centre of the ankle joint. This line is shown in the diagram. Between the joints the bones and muscles are curved and offset to the outside. This has probably evolved to allow clearance for the other foot in the walking or running stride. It is most pronounced just above the ankle joint in the critical area where the shank of the ski boot clamps onto the leg.

All boots must therefore have a built-in angle to compensate for this effect. This can be seen by looking at any ski boot from the rear while it is standing on a table (Figure 4).

Figure 4 - Ski boot from rear

When the angle is chosen in the design of the ski boot it is assumed that the variation between people is small enough for them to compensate easily.

In practice:

  1. The variation in the shape of the lower leg between different people is large; and
  2. Many of those at the extreme of the random variation between people will be at a disadvantage, maybe at a very serious disadvantage, such that they can never ski well.

Warren Witherell points this out in "How the Racers Ski". To the question "Why do so many skiers need wedges?", he answered;

"Human leg bones are as varied in shape as human noses. Each person’s leg and ankle structure produces a slightly different angle for the shin bone to rise from the floor in a natural stance."

All of this produces a totally random variation in the angle at which the ski is attached to different people. This must be important in skiing.


Chapter 2


The angle of the ski on the snow is the whole basis of skiing. This angle is controlled by the lower leg of the skier, but we have seen that variation in leg shape introduces a random variation. This must be important and should be compensated for in the boot, but how should this compensation be done? What relation of ski to lower leg should we aim at?

At the initial stage of such an inquiry it is normal engineering practice to return to first principles in order to develop a basic theory. This basic theory should be simple and can then be tested and modified by experience. The conclusion from various analyses and from various experiments is as follows:

"The perpendicular from the centre of the running surface of the ski should pass through the centre of the knee joint." (Figure 5)

The reasons for this conclusion are as follows:

1.      1.      In a modern ski boot the ankle is more or less rigid sideways. The knee should really be looked upon as a pin joint. It is not really designed for applying a sideways force at the foot. This can be checked by sitting on one chair and placing the feet on the ground outside the legs of another chair placed in front of you. With the lower leg vertical and the knee bent through 90° you can apply an inward force with both feet, but not a large force, and maintaining the force for only 20 seconds or so makes it clear that equipment should not be designed to require the skier to apply such a force continuously. This means that the knee is not designed to cope with a force from the ski where the line of action lies outside the knee. Hence the forces on the knee should pass through the knee, preferably near the centre. In addition, the force from the ski will be approximately perpendicular to the running surface of the ski in contact with the snow.

Figure 5. Correct Canting

Hence the perpendicular from the centre of the running surface of the ski should pass through the centre of the knee joint.

  1. Since from (1) above the knee can only apply a force to the ski, the line of action of which passes through the knee, different angles of ski attachment at the boot will give totally different possibilities for the behaviour of the ski in a turn.

    Figure 6 - Left leg of skier doing right turn – seen from the front

    In (a) the force on the ski will tend to make the ski slide sideways even when the skier would like it to grip. This skier will find it very difficult to "get an edge" and carve a turn.

    In (b) the ski will dig into the snow and grip even when the skier would like it to sideslip. This will be almost impossible to ski on because it won’t sideslip at all.

    In (c) the skier will be able to define whether the ski grips (that is carves) or slips (sideslips) by small applications of force from the knee. He will be able to control the ski with good "edge control". This again suggests that the force from the knee should be perpendicular to the running surface of the ski. (Actually, this analysis suggests that the perpendicular that passes through the knee should be from the edge and not from the centre of the running surface as in (1) above. However, if the flexibility of the ski boot is considered it will be seen that the perpendicular passing through the centre of the running surface when there is no force applied will tend to move towards the edge as force is applied in a turn. More detailed analysis could of course lead to a suggested level of sideways flexibility in ski boots.)
  2. Good skiing technique requires that the weight is carried on the inside edge of the outer ski in the turn. However, fast skiing, skiing in moguls, deep snow skiing, varied snow skiing etc, all require that some weight, and at times all the weight, is taken on the outside edge of the inside ski. The skier needs to be able to ski on that edge even if it is only to correct an error.

    In all of these cases it is clearly desirable that the two skis should behave dynamically in the same manner. There is only one situation that allows the ski to behave similarly when skiing on either inside or outside edge. This is the symmetrical case where the perpendicular through the centre of the running surface passes through the centre of the knee joint as suggested in (1) and (2) above.

    This point was also emphasised by Warren Witherell in "How the Racers Ski".

    "There is no requirement more basic for an efficient ski technique than having your skis change edge simultaneously and having them equally edged at all points in a turn. Proper wedges ensure that these requirements are met." (his italics).
  3. In (3) above the behaviour of the ski in sliding or gripping was considered. In addition there is the behaviour of the ski in steering itself when edged.

    This is probably best approached by considering straight running characteristics.

    In the suggested situation with the centre of the knee perpendicularly above the centre of the running surface, the ski is stable in straight running (Figure 7a). If it deviates slightly to the left as in (b) then it will be on the right edge and will steer itself back to the central position (a). Similarly for a deviation slightly to the right as in (c). Thus the ski will always tend to centre itself under the knee giving easy steering by moving the knees as recommended for good skiing technique.

    This effect will only apply in a good symmetrical manner if the perpendicular through the centre of the running surface passes through the centre of the knee.
  4. The ability to stand straight over the ski is even more important when standing on one ski than when on two. It will help greatly with the ability to develop independent use of the two legs in skiing.
  5. With the configuration suggested the skier will ski with knees about ski width apart. The edge change and the initiation of a turn will be instantaneous and simultaneous. This will be achieved simply by moving both knees sideways slightly.

    If the skier is like (a) in Figure 6 where the perpendicular passes well outside the centre of the knee, it is not practical to achieve the simultaneous edge change and there is a range of knee movement during which neither ski is on the inside edge. This was also emphasised by Witherell in the quote in (3) above.
  6. If forces on the knee do not pass through the knee, there will be continuous tension in the medial or lateral ligaments of the knee. Ligaments are not designed to withstand prolonged tension. This could cause pain and knee problems.

Figure 7 - Straight running. Either leg seen from front


All of these arguments support the statement that:

"The perpendicular through the centre of the running surface of the ski should pass through the centre of the knee joint."

It is necessary to have a measurement system to define and compare deviations from this ideal situation. I suggest the following definition:

"The KPS (Knee Perpendicular above Ski) cant angle of a particular combination of boot and lower leg is the angle, seen from the front, between the perpendicular through the centre of the running surface of the ski and the line from this centre to the centre of the knee joint.

Where the perpendicular lies inside the centre of the knee joint the angle is negative; where outside, the angle is positive."


  1. Measurement must be without stress on the boot.
  2. It is assumed that the surface of the binding onto which the boot is fixed is parallel to the running surface of the ski.
  3. The term KPS cant angle is used only to distinguish between this and any other definition. In the rest of this booklet the word cant alone will be used to have this meaning.

The angle obviously applies not to a boot, not to a person’s leg, but only to a particular combination and may be different for the right and left leg in one pair of boots.

Figure 8 shows an example of a leg/boot combination that would have a KPS cant angle of +8° . The perpendicular from the centre of the ski passes outside the knee joint and is at an angle of 8° from the line from the centre of the knee to the centre of the ski.


            Figure 8 - Left leg with +8° KPS cant angle

Chapter 3


Measurement of the KPS cant angle is simple.

            Figure 9 - KPS Cant Gauge (patent applied for)

It is only necessary to locate a gauge on the flat under-surface of the boot, or the running surface of the ski, and for a scale in degrees to be in front of the knee such that the KPS cant angle can be read off.

The simplest form of gauge consists of a flat sheet of plastic shaped as shown in Figure 9 with a hole for the boot and a scale on the top near the knee.

The reading given by this gauge will be generally in line with that given by the older cant measuring machines (see figure 2). However, the KPS cant gauge will give an accurate, non-subjective reading which is not prone to errors and is more correct in theory.

To measure the cant angle of your right boot plus lower leg combination, proceed as follows:

  1. Put ski boots on and stand up. The type of floor or carpet is unimportant.
  2. Decide, and preferably mark, the centre of the knee. Roll trousers up above the knee and look down on the knee. Bend the knee and point the boot generally in line with the thigh as shown in Figure 10. Estimate where the centre of the whole knee joint is and mark this on the front of the knee. This will be about 1cm from the inside edge of the kneecap. (Note that the centre of the knee will not be the centre of the kneecap because the kneecap points outwards by 30° or so – figure 10 – when the foot is pointed in line with the thigh.)
  3. Take the cant gauge, lift the toe of the boot, leaving the heel on the ground, and place the gauge under the boot sole such that the flat part of the hole in the gauge supports the flat surface under the ski boot about 5cms (2ins) from the toe (Figure 9).

    Allow the boot to press the gauge onto the ground.

    Figure 10 - Looking down on right knee (knee bent)
  4. Ensure that the boot is located in the flat part of the gauge only and is not resting on the lip at either side.
  5. Ensure that the gauge is approximately at right angles to the direction in which the ski boot is pointing.
  6. Push the knee forwards so that the shin is pushing into the front of the boot, pull the top of the gauge against the knee, and check that the boot points generally in line with the thigh. Then read off the angle on the scale that the centre of the knee points to.
  7. Repeat for other leg.

This is the KPS cant angle for that combination of boot and lower leg.

Since the bottom of the cant gauge acts as a pivot it is not necessary for the lower leg to be vertical. The reading remains the same when the knee is moved from side to side.

The reading should be taken to the nearest whole degree.

Where the zero line of the gauge lies outside the centre of the knee, the angle for that leg/boot combination is positive. If the zero degree line on the gauge lies inside the knee, the angle for that leg/boot combination is negative (this is very rare).

The cant gauge can be used in exactly the same way with the ski attached to the boot. The width of the ski is approximately the same as the width of the underside of the boot so it will locate on the measuring surface of the gauge in exactly the same way. (Compact skis being wider, may not fit between the edges of the gauge surface.)

Figure 8 shows a left leg with a KPS cant angle of +8° . Note how far the perpendicular is outside the knee as a result of 8° .

When skiing in a turn the forces on the ski will distort the boot and increase this angle greatly. This is why measurement must always be done without sideways force on the boot.

To ensure accuracy when using the KPS cant gauge, the following points should be noted:

  1. The measuring surface of the gauge must support the flat surface under the toe of the ski boot which is designed to rest on the anti-friction part of the binding. This covers the area between 3cm and 7.5cm back from the toe.
  2. This surface should be clean and free from gouges, etc.
  3. Check that this surface on the ski boot is parallel to the undersurface of the heel. Bindings clamp the heel down, not the toe. Some boots may have a twist which will lead to an inaccurate reading (as well as giving poor location on the ski).
  4. The gauge does not show positive or negative readings. These must be deduced from the position of the zero line in relation to the knee.


Chapter 4

Confirmation, Conclusions and Advice

The next step in this engineering study of canting is some confirmation of the theoretical predictions.

In about 1975 I was able to check about 20 people including at least 10 very good skiers, several top grass skiers, several top freestylers, ex-junior racers, several BASI qualified and 1 BASI 1.

All the good skiers got a reading of less than +1° , all but 1 being between 0° and +1° . One had a negative reading: That is the perpendicular was inside the centre of the knee.

The less good skiers varied by several degrees. My own reading was +4° on each leg. Anyone above +5° was always a poor skier. Older boots, for instance the leather clip generation, were always +5° or more.

I looked upon this one fairly limited measurement as adequate confirmation and adjusted my own boots to 0° .

The 20 or 30 measurements that I have made subsequently have confirmed my conclusions. The appendix contains a selection of case histories.

The limited number of measurements and corrections that I have been able to do are only a first step towards a full understanding of canting.

However, in the absence of any contrary evidence or proposal, I believe the evidence is sufficiently substantial to confirm the general rule:

"In a lateral plane the perpendicular through the centre of the running surface of the ski should pass through the centre of the knee."

Two important questions arise at this point:

  1. To what degree of accuracy should measurements and adjustments be made?
  2. Should we aim at a KPS cant angle of 0° exactly or will experience suggest that the ideal is slightly away from 0° (-1° or +2° for instance)?

Warren Witherell said, "for racers I insist on wedging to 0.5° accuracy". This was based on wide experience and I am sure he will be proved right. My own limited experience only allows me to suggest working to an accuracy of about 2° . In addition, I do not know the exact relationship between the old rule "both skis flat in the normal stance" and my new rule, the KPS, or Knee Perpendicular above Ski rule. I have found measurements of cant by the old machines to be subjective and inaccurate but I believe that the two rules are the same within approximately 2° .

Based on this accuracy figure of 2° and the experience available, the following rules can be listed:

  1. Make KPS cant measurements to an accuracy of 1° . (Most skiers will have positive readings. That is, the perpendicular will be outside the centre of the knee.)
  2. If the reading is less than 2° no adjustment is necessary.
  3. If the reading is 4° you will probably benefit from adjustment to 0° .
  4. If your reading is 4° but you are a competent skier and happy at 4° by all means do nothing. However, you are the ideal person to judge the effect of such an adjustment and to provide the information that will lead to much better advice for everyone. I would welcome your comments and conclusions.
  5. If your reading is 5° or more you will almost certainly benefit from adjustment to 0° .
  6. Most skiers will have the same KPS reading for each leg. Those who have a difference of more than 2° will benefit particularly from adjustment.
  7. When making adjustments, aim to achieve a KPS cant angle between 0° and +2° . For example, if the reading is +5° and wedges are only available as 2° , 4° , 6° , 8° etc then choose the 4° wedge to give 5 – 4 = +1° rather than the 6° wedge which would give 5 – 6 = -1° .
  8. The above rules apply to men and women. Any difference in ideal KPS angle is small. Witherell suggested that girls needed to be 0.5° to 1° on the outside edges but the above rules are based on an accuracy of only 2° , so this difference should be neglected until general advice is more accurate.


Chapter 5

Adjustment – Ideal

The subject of adjustment must be divided into two parts – ideal and "what to do now", because we are not at present in an ideal situation.

Ideally there should be adequate adjustment in all ski boots to cover the variation between people. At the time of purchase or hire, the boot would be set to the correct cant angle.

The foot and the part of the boot surrounding the foot does not need to adjust. As shown in Figure 3. It is the lower leg above the ankle joint that varies and it is this part of the boot, the shank of the boot, that needs to be adjusted in its relation to the lower part of the boot. It is possible that this can be done relatively easily at the hinges by adjusting the outer one up or down.

This is exactly the mechanism that is available in several ski boots on the market today. Unfortunately the range of adjustment is usually only 4° or 5° and this is centred on the average for non-adjustable boots. Hence the person who is most in need of adjustment can make use of only 2° , while he might need 10° .

One such 1982 boot that I tried was adjustable to KPS cant readings on my foot of +5° to +9° . I could not adjust to 0° using the cant adjustment provided.

The range of adjustment necessary is, I believe, at least 10° and this should not be centred on what is normal for a non-adjustable boot. The full 10° of compensation should be available in the direction that will bring someone who had a +10° KPS cant reading as defined earlier to the 0° position.

When this adjustment is routinely available on all boots it will be normal to "set" the boot/leg combination to the correct angle in the shop. A skier may find that he likes to ski on +2° or -1° and will be able to set any boot to that angle when it is on his foot by using the simple gauge. A racer may also like to adjust his boots to different settings for different races.


Chapter 6

Adjustment – What to do now

This section is really the advice to the individual on what to do having measured the cant angle of his boot/leg combination.

The present situation is not ideal. When the full required range of adjustment is available in the boots, there will also be a good body of advice available on the exact settings to aim at and what deviation is important.

For the moment, advice can only be based on the theory and the limited practical experience described earlier. However, in the absence of anything more comprehensive the following should help many skiers and will lead eventually to the ideal situation.

Having made the measurements, the next question is whether to make any adjustment.

First a few words of caution:

  1. We have defined a 0° position but this does not mean that everyone should be exactly 0° . I need many more case histories before suggesting that the best position is exactly 0° for everyone. As a general rule I would say +2° or less – don’t change. 4° or more – correct to 0. 3° ? - Your guess is as good as mine!
  2. If you do change you must stay there. Don’t expect instant results. A week is the absolute minimum to get used to such a change. Don’t experiment with different values. Choose 0° if you are going to change and then work on improving your skiing technique.
  3. If you do change you must ski very slowly for three days at least. You will catch edges. Loosen the tension and check your bindings frequently during these three days. It is necessary to completely relearn your edge control. Sideslip is particularly good practice for edge control.
  4. If you do change you have an ideal opportunity to get rid of bad habits. If you can find a BASI (British Association of Ski Instructors) instructor, get him to take you through all the beginners’ exercises. Keep just to these for the first day.

The next problem is how to implement the change. There are 6 methods available:

  1. Use boots that incorporate a cant adjustment. Check, however, that the adjustment helps. As mentioned previously, the range of adjustment is usually small and the end of the range may still be a long way from 0° on your foot. Hopefully this will improve in the next year or so.
  2. Choose boots that bring you close to 0° in the first case. Go to the shop with a gauge and try various makes. (But remember the three most important factors in choosing a ski boot: 1 – Comfort, 2 – Comfort, 3 – Comfort.)
  3. Move one of the hinges on the boot. This is only available to the do it yourself enthusiast and will gain 3° or so but will be hard work.
  4. It is possible to file the sole of the boot, and this method was suggested in "How the Racers Ski". Since then, however, the size and shape of the boot sole has been standardised to ensure a good fit with modern bindings. Modification of the shape should therefore be avoided.
  5. Pads can be put between the inner and outer boot on the inside of the ankle. Two thickness of carpet underfelt (each 5cm by 8cm, 2ins by 3ins) will give about 3° . A very satisfactory method for fairly small adjustments.

1 – 5 above apply to the boot, but the total correction even using several of these is still only 7° or so. The alternative is 6.

  1. Wedges - Wedges of plastic of the required angle can be placed on the ski under the binding to make the same adjustment that should ideally be made in the boot. This is the most conventional means of canting or "wedging" as it is also called for this reason.

Wedges have been used for many years by some people, but great care should be taken to ensure that the bindings and ski brakes still work correctly, particularly if the wedge angle is larger than about 6° .

For those whose KPS cant reading is greater than +6° or so, wedging is really the only method available, but it may lead to discomfort because the footbed in the boot will not be horizontal. Footbed insets may help in improving comfort but they will not influence the cant angle (as pointed out by Witherell).

The direction in which any correction must be applied has not been explained in detail. This is best determined by thinking carefully about the situation. With the knee directly above the ski the adjustment must aim to put the running surface of the ski flat onto the snow.

In fact, I believe that almost all measurements will yield positive values of KPS cant angle and wedges for instance will have the thicker edge on the inside of the ski


Chapter 7

General Observations

There is as yet no generally accepted rule on canting. I hope that this hypothesis will lead to such a rule and general understanding. Within the simple general rule the more complicated detail must be incorporated. The following are some general observations but none of these have yet been adequately studied.

Most good skiers will have KPS cant readings in the same range. This is probably due mainly to "the survival of the fittest". If they didn’t lie close to the centre of the range they would have found learning skiing difficult and would have gone back to football!

However, the setting chosen by the boot manufacturers is probably not centred on the ideal. I have suggested that the ideal is close to 0° but people can certainly ski well at +7° , particularly if they are good enough to ski entirely on the outer ski. I don’t believe that anyone could ski at -7° and probably not even at -3° . This is because sideslip, and therefore edge control, would be impossible for the reason given in Chapter 2, No 2.

A boot that was designed to have the centre of the range at 0° would be rejected by the very best skiers, those who would land up at -5° in this boot but have about 0° in most boots.

Hence, boots are designed so that all skiers will be on the positive side of the ideal and only a small proportion will be very close to it. I suspect that the vast majority, even of good skiers, would benefit from some degree of adjustment.

Having to design the boot so that no one is on the wrong side of the ideal means that everyone is on the other side of the ideal.

There is another forcing factor in boot design. It was reported in one American skiing magazine that a well-known Swedish racer cants in order to put the skis onto the outer edge. This seems to mean that he aims at a KPS cant angle somewhere between +3° and +6° . I have also read that many Swedish and other slalom skiers have followed suit. This may be associated with the Slalom and GS technique of initiating the step turn very early by putting the weight onto the outside edge of that inside ski (the edge nearest the gate) at a very early stage in the turn.

This may or may not be relevant to the average skier who need stability and edge control above all and of course this adjustment for slalom might be totally unsuitable for downhill because of reason 4, Chapter 2.

Techniques and adjustments used by racers are very quickly incorporated into recreational ski equipment. This demand by top racers for a more positive KPS cant angle may be why boots seem to have been designed to give a more positive angle by 3° or 4° over the past 8 years or so.

My 1976 boots require adjustment by 4° , but my 1982-3 boots require 7° . This may well mean that most good skiers would now have readings of 3° - 4° or so, instead of the 0° - 1° measured in 1975-6.

This "fashion" change in cant angles of ski boots was noted also in "How the Racers Ski". "Prior to 1972, most ski boots were made so that nearly all skiers stood naturally on their outside edges. Responding to the publicity given to wedges in 1970 and 1971, the boot makers built a more severe outward cant into their 1972 boots. The result was that many more people – at least a third of the 500 racers I tested – stand naturally on their inside edges in the new boots". (Warren Witherell)

As I have suggested, being too much on the inside edge, a negative KPS angle, makes a ski very difficult to control and I suspect that this is why less outward cant has been built into the boots since that time – to the disadvantage of those, like myself, who were on their outside edges even in the 1972 boots!

The purchase of new boots in The Alps in January 1983 forced me to ski for 3 weeks at +7° , having skied at +1° to +2° for 6 – 8 years, and was therefore a good opportunity for comparison.

I was instructing over much of the 3 weeks and had no difficulty in demonstrating the basic manoeuvres or those up to a good parallel turn. The main difficulty was with quick turns. I was unable to take a mogul field fast and continuously. I was unable to change edge quickly and set the new edge.

I adjusted the boots to 0° for the 1983-4 season. The difference was very marked and confirmed by hypothesis that the ideal setting is close to 0° . There were no disadvantages and clear advantages in all types of skiing.

One difference may be of particular note. When skiing at +7° I experienced, for the first time ever, frequent pain from the medial ligament of one knee. This was probably due to reason 7 in Chapter 2. On changing back to 0° this was totally absent. Skiing at a positive KPS angle will mean that the forces on the knee do not pass close to the centre of the knee and result in tension in the medial ligament. I suspect that this may be associated with some knee problems in skiing.


Chapter 8


In the natural stance the lower leg is approximately vertical. Because of this the KPS canting rule defined in this booklet will give approximately the same results as the old rule that the skis should be flat in the natural stance.

However, the theory behind the KPS rule is different. It is related to the mechanical behaviour of the unit formed by ski plus boot plus lower leg. This means for example that knockneedness is not important. Only the shape of the lower leg and the resultant KPS cant angle need be considered.

The KPS rule has a sound theoretical basis. It is supported by practical experience. It leads to a simple form of gauge which gives an accurate reading which is not influenced either by the measurer or by variations in the stance of the subject. The gauge is portable and inexpensive, allowing use by racers and recreational skiers.

With the gauge it should be possible to build up a body of experience which will allow ideal settings to be used with the appropriate small variations for skiing standard, age, sex, type of race discipline, type of ski and any other factor that is found to be important.

Appendix I

Case Histories

Case 1 – The Author

I had suspected the problem for a long time. I had even tried to correct, but subjectively I thought that only one foot needed correction and so had probably made myself even more one-sided than previously.

I visited the London shops that had canting machines in 1973 or 1974 and none of the operators said I needed to cant.

As I stood on the machines it was obvious that the answer just depended upon how I stood and where I put my knees.

Following my own investigations I corrected by 4° on each foot. I find this a great help in all types of skiing.

Case 2

A chalet girl in Selva who was a water ski champion but despite determination and balance was having great trouble with snow.

Her skis were obviously on the outside edges all the time and when measured she was +7° on one leg and +10° on the other. This was corrected with wooden wedges under the bindings and in the opinion of the group I was with – all good skiers – she was immediately better and in the course of 1 day she improved dramatically.

Case 3

An enthusiastic but mediocre middle-aged skier whose skis were visibly on their outer edges.

Measurement gave +1° on the right leg but +7° on the left. This corresponded to exactly what he had thought for years but had never been able to prove.

Case 4

Candidate on 1980 BASI course at Flaine. Obviously having to make large compensations in style. Measurement gave +10° . (Failed course – refused to correct.)

Case 5

Athletic boy of 14 or so who had skied for 3 to 4 weeks and was progressing well but already having to compensate excessively. His Waterloo came on a day of new snow. He couldn’t stop his skis diverging. Measurement gave +7° which I corrected to 0. Within a day his style was much more normal.

Case 6

Medium to advanced skier having problems getting edge change correct in 360° turns on gentle slopes. Corrected cant by +2° approximately and found edge change much easier. (Note: The implication of this booklet for the freestyler must be obvious.)


"How the Racers Ski" by Warren Witherell. Pub: W W Horton & Co 1972

"We Learned to Ski" by Harold Evans, Brian Jackson and Mark Ottoway. Pub: 1974


Appendix II – written August 1985

  1. "I continue to be amazed at the resistance to canting that persists throughout the ski world. It is so basic to efficient and pleasurable skiing and, as you correctly point out, a serious need for cants places very distressing loads on the ligaments surrounding the knee."
    Warren Witherell in private letter to John Gorman.
  2. The new ski boot models for the 1984/5 season
    In the course of measuring various people who were trying new equipment last season, I came to the general conclusion that the new boots for the 1984/5 season had been designed to give more inside edge. That is that people would get a less positive or more negative KPS reading with the new boots than with older ones.

    I was personally able to try new models in the Dynafit and Salomon range and was able to get to a 0° KPS reading on both the models that I tried that had cant adjustments.

    This does not however mean that everyone will be able to get a 0° KPS reading. One inexperienced skier, who did not own boots but had always suspected that he needed to cant, was only able to get to +1° KPS on full adjustment. Other skiers will inevitably find that they have an excessively negative KPS on these new boots until they adjust.

    In general I am impressed and pleased with the new adjustable models but it is essential that the adjustment is correctly used.
  3. What KPS angle do racers prefer?
    Other than the occasional snippet in the skiing press and distant observation, the only information that I have comes from Warren Witherell who has tested hundreds of racers each year since 1970 (with conventional cant measuring equipment). He says that "many racers say they like to have the centre of the knee over the big toe. In practice our racers are mostly canted in about that position."

    By my measurements on various boots this means a KPS reading of about +2° .

    Thus Warren Witherell’s experience leads him to a slightly different angle from my 0° KPS ideal. These two conclusions may be totally compatible. The more experienced skier concentrates his weight on the outer ski. The less experienced skier inevitably has some weight on the inner ski so the need for the two skis to be the same becomes more important. This is only achieved at 0° KPS.

    The main conclusion from this is the need for more feedback from skiers of all standards and particularly instructors’ evaluations of less experienced skiers (see 5 below).
  4. Bowleggedness
    It is frequently believed that it is the bowlegged skier that needs to cant. Having the knees apart, it is argued, puts the skis onto the outside edge which must be compensated for by wedges on the inside.

    The theory in this booklet suggests that this is a false argument. I argue that it is the shape of the lower leg that defines the required cant adjustment not the position of the knee in normal standing. I am glad to say that this is confirmed by the experience of Warren Witherell who wrote to me as follows:

    "The most difficult people to cant are those who are seriously bowlegged. For racing we have found that these skiers must be forced to an undercanted (more knees together) position like everyone else.

    Sadly there is a natural handicap here for the bowlegged person. We have never known a truly top level racer who was bowlegged. They should ride horses! Most of the very best racers are slightly knock-kneed, see Thoeni, Stenmark, the Mahres, etc."

    This is the result that is given by the KPS gauge but conventional equipment would probably suggest that wedges should be used.

    However I do know of a bowlegged skier who reads 0° KPS but has used wedges with good effect. If the skier cannot change his basic stance then maybe this is the only solution but it does not come within the KPS theory and will never produce a good racer!
  5. Feedback
    It will only be possible to give much better advice to all skiers, but particularly the inexperienced, when there is very much better information available.

    I would therefore like information from as many skiers as possible on their experience. Of particular interest at the moment would be the experiences of good skiers (and others) in adjusting between +2° KPS and 0° KPS and also the progress, or not, of beginners correlated with their KPS readings.

    Please note that it is essential to get used to any change for a couple of days and to try various snow conditions.

    I will analyse any such information and produce a new appendix to this booklet each year.


Appendix III – written October 1986

  1. Conclusions from letters etc. during 1986
    In general those at +3° or +4° KPS do not become good skiers. Their style is obvious at a distance and a great handicap. Several of you have suffered this and solved the problem yourselves. One person wrote: "The gauge confirmed what I really knew already." (He had corrected with wedges.) Most such people simply don’t pursue a sport that they find very difficult.

    This problem will only be solved when:
    a)Most instructors recognise the problem (+4° KPS can be recognised easily at a distance without measurement!)
    b)Measurement is generally available.
    c)Cant adjustment is available on cheaper boots.

    I have received very little feedback which would help me say whether 0° or +2° was the correct setting for a good skier. The few I checked personally were very consistently +1.5° . Most were in 1983/4 boots. My own measurements of 1983 boots against 1985 boots suggest that these skiers will be close to 0° when they buy new boots. It will be interesting to see if this is confirmed and whether they like it!

    The possible role of wrong canting in causing knee problems has come up several times during the year. Number 3 below sums up my views.
  2. Case Studies
    2.1Summary of KPS Cant Measurements done during SCGP Advanced Off-Piste party in Morzine, 18 01 86 – 01 02 86
    I measured a total of about 10 people. Everyone was within the range +1° to +2° (i.e. all within 1° ) except the following:

    A – about 3.5° , I think (but didn’t make notes)
    B - 4°
    C - 5° one leg, 7° the other

    Each of these could be recognised ¼ mile away! This confirms my rules (printed on the gauge) which I have evolved over several years of measurements, i.e.
    a)anything between 0° - 2° OK
    b)anything over +2° - probably worth correcting

    All 3 exceptions were wearing relatively old boots. I went to a ski shop with C to try new boots: Salomon SX80 – gave 4° on each foot, Salomon SX91E – gave +1° on full cant adjustment.

    2.2Letter from top level skier, BAASI trainer, freestyle champ, etc
    "I am particularly bowlegged in the lower leg, and after having tried many systems of binding-wedges, orthotic insoles, footbeds, etc all with minor improvements, but it was the advent of the SX91E which first provided me with the elusive flat ski on the snow – a revelation indeed.

    Also of interest was the fact that the needle-sharp pain which I had experienced in my left knee during skiing completely disappeared.

    Needless to say, I am a great fan of canting."

    (I conclude that one can become a good skier despite canting problems but never without serious disadvantages – JDG)
  3. Knee problems
    I summed up my views in the following letter to Skiing UK:

    Dear Sir,

    In your article "Boy Racer" last month you say that a "canting facility is an unnecessary and unwelcome adjustment for growing bones". This seems to suggest that cant adjustment is used to adjust away from a correct normal setting.

    The whole point of cant measurement and adjustment is to achieve the same correct setting for everyone despite the large variation in the shape of the lower leg where the ski boot clamps onto it.

    The correct setting is important to skiing technique but is probably also important in avoiding knee damage.

    If the cant setting is correct, the main force from the ski will pass close to the centre of the knee as in walking or running. This will apply even in a turn. A variation of only 2° will double the force by concentrating it on one condyle (bearing surface of the knee). Very roughly a variation of 5° will triple the force on one condyle (and cartilage?) as well as introducing a large tension into the medial ligament (the vertical ligament on the inner side of the knee).

    I would expect such effects to be even more important for "young growing bones" than for adults.

    This simple analysis is confirmed by experience. To quote just three examples:

    a)Myself. When skiing at +5° (KPS) I experienced frequent pain from the medial ligament of one knee.
    b)Warren Witherell – author of "How the Racers Ski". …. a serious need for cants places very distressing loads on the ligaments surrounding the knee….." (private letter).
    c)Eric Davies – BASI I/Freestyle champion, etc. "The SX91E first provided me with the elusive flat ski on the snow – a revelation indeed …. The needle sharp pain which I had experienced in my left knee during skiing completely disappeared." (private letter).

    General cant adjustment will allow everyone to ski at the same correct setting regardless of the shape of their lower leg. I believe this will improve skiing technique and will also reduce knee problems.

    Yours faithfully

  4. More Feedback
    Many of you have your old boots at home. I would much appreciate lists of KPS angle for yourself in various generations of boot and any correlation that you can recognise between KPS angle, skiing ability/progress, etc and knee problems (if any). I will sum up such information next year.